Archives For Thomas W. Hazlett

[TOTM: The following is part of a digital symposium by TOTM guests and authors on the legal and regulatory issues that arose during Ajit Pai’s tenure as chairman of the Federal Communications Commission. The entire series of posts is available here.

Thomas W. Hazlett is the H.H. Macaulay Endowed Professor of Economics at Clemson University.]

Disclosure: The one time I met Ajit Pai was when he presented a comment on my book, “The Political Spectrum,” at a Cato Institute forum in 2018. He was gracious, thorough, and complimentary. He said that while he had enjoyed the volume, he hoped not to appear in upcoming editions. I took that to imply that he read the book as harshly critical of the Federal Communications Commission. Well, when merited, I concede. But it left me to wonder if he had followed my story to its end, as I document the success of reforms launched in recent decades and advocate their extension. Inclusion in a future edition might work out well for a chairman’s legacy. Or…

While my comment here focuses on radio-spectrum allocation, there was a notable reform achieved during the Pai FCC that touches on the subject, even if far more general in scope. In January 2018, the commission voted to initiate an Office of Economics and Analytics.[1] The organizational change was expeditiously instituted that same year, with the new unit stood up under the leadership of FCC economist Giulia McHenry.[2]  I long proposed an FCC “Office of Economic Analysis” on the grounds that it had a reasonable prospect of improving evidence-based policymaking, allowing cost-benefit calculations to be made in a more professional, independent, and less political context.[3]  I welcome this initiative by the Pai FCC and look forward to the empirical test now underway.[4] 

Big Picture

Spectrum policy had notable triumphs under Chairman Pai but was—as President Carter dubbed the Vietnam War—an “incomplete success.” The main cause for celebration was the campaign to push spectrum-access rights into the marketplace. Pai’s public position was straightforward: “Our spectrum strategy calls for making low-band, mid-band, and high-band airwaves available for flexible use,” he wrote in an FCC blog post on June 19, 2018. But the means used by regulators to pursue that policy agenda repeatedly, historically prove determinative. The Pai FCC traveled pathways both effective and ineffective, and we should learn from either. The basic theme is that regulators do better when they seek to create new rights that enable social coordination and entrepreneurial innovation, rather than enacting rules that specify what they find to be the “best” technologies or business models. The traditional spectrum-allocation approach is to permit exactly what the FCC finds to be the best use of spectrum, but this assumes knowledge about the value of alternatives the regulator does not possess. Moreover, it assumes away the costs of regulators imposing their solutions over and above a competitive process that might have less direction but more freedom. In a 2017 notice, the FCC displayed the progress we have made in departing from administrative control, when it sought guidance from private sector commenters this way:

“Are there opportunities to incentivize relocation or repacking of incumbent licensees to make spectrum available for flexible broadband use?

We seek comment on whether auctions … could be used to increase the availability of flexible use spectrum?”

By focusing on how rights—not markets—should be structured, the FCC may side-step useless food fights and let social progress flow.[5]

Progress

Spectrum-allocation results were realized. Indeed, when one looks at the pattern in licensed and unlicensed allocations for “flexible use” under 10 GHz, the recent four-year interval coincides with generous increases, both absolutely and from trend. See Figure 1. These data feature expansions in bandwidth via liberal licenses that include 70 MHz for CBRS (3.5 GHz band), with rights assigned in Auction 105 (2020), and 280 MHz (3.7 – 3.98 GHz) assigned in Auction 107 (2020-21, soon to conclude). The 70 MHz added via Auction 1002 (600 MHz) in 2017 was accounted for during the previous FCC, but substantial bandwidth in Auctions 101, 102, and 103 was added in the millimeter wave bands (not shown in Figure 1, which focuses on low- and mid-band rights).[6]  Meanwhile, multiple increments of unlicensed spectrum allocations were made in 2020: 30 MHz shifted from the Intelligent Transportation Services set-aside (5.9 GHz) in 2020, 80 MHz of CBRS in 2020, and 1,200 MHz (6 GHz) dedicated to Wi-Fi type services in 2020.[7]  Substantial millimeter wave frequency space was previously set aside for unlicensed operations in 2016.[8]

Source: FCC and author’s calculations.

First, that’s not the elephant in the room. Auction 107 has assigned licenses allocated 280 MHz of flexible-use mid-band spectrum, producing at least $94 billion in gross bids (of which about $13 billion will be paid to incumbent satellite licensees to reconfigure their operations so as to occupy just 200 MHz, rather than 500 MHz, of the 3.7 – 4.2 GHz band).[9]  This crushes previous FCC sales; indeed, it constitutes about 42% of all auction receipts:

  • FCC auction receipts, 1994-2019: $117 billion[10]
  • FCC auction receipts, 2020 (Auctions 103 and 105): $12.1 billion
  • FCC auction winning bids, 2020 (Auction 107): $94 billion (gross bids including relocation costs, incentive payments, and before Assignment Phase payments)

The addition of the 280 MHz to existing flexible-use spectrum suitable for mobile (aka, Commercial Mobile Radio Services – CMRS) is the largest increment ever released. It will compose about one-fourth of the low- and mid-band frequencies available via liberal licenses. This constitutes a huge advance with respect to 5G deployments, but going much further—promoting competition, innovation in apps and devices, the Internet of Things, and pushing the technological envelope toward 6G and beyond. Notably, the U.S. has uniquely led this foray to a new frontier in spectrum allocation.

The FCC deserves praise for pushing this proceeding to fruition. So, here it is. The C-Band is a very big deal and a major policy success. And more: in Auction 107, the commission very wisely sold overlay rights. It did not wait for administrative procedures to reconfigure wireless use, tightly supervising new “sharing” of the band, but (a) accepted the incumbents’ basic strategy for reallocation, (b) sold new prospective rights to high bidders, subject to protection of incumbents, (c) used a fraction of proceeds to fund incumbents cooperating with the reallocation, plussing-up payments when hitting deadlines, and (d) implicitly relied on the new licensees to push the relocation process forward.

Challenges

It is interesting that the FCC sort of articulated this useful model, and sort of did not:

For a successful public auction of overlay licenses in the 3.7-3.98 GHz band, bidders need to know before an auction commences when they will get access to that currently occupied spectrum as well as the costs they will incur as a condition of their overlay license. (FCC C-Band Order [Feb. 7, 2020], par. 110)

A germ of truth, but note: Auction 107 also demonstrated just the reverse. Rights were sold prior to clearing the airwaves and bidders—while liable for “incentive payments”—do not know with certainty when the frequencies will be available for their use. Risk is embedded, as it is widely in financial assets (corporate equity shares are efficiently traded despite wide disagreement on future earnings), and yet markets perform. Indeed, the “certainty” approach touted by the FCC in their language about a “successful public auction” has long deterred efficient reallocations, as the incumbents’ exiting process holds up arrival of the entrants. The central feature of the C-Band reallocation was not to create certainty, but to embed an overlay approach into the process. This draws incumbents and entrants together into positive-sum transactions (mediated by the FCC are party-to-party) where they cooperate to create new productive opportunities, sharing the gains.  

The inspiration for the C-Band reallocation of satellite spectrum was bottom-up. As with so much of the radio spectrum, the band devoted to satellite distribution of video (relays to and from an array of broadcast and cable TV systems and networks) was old and tired. For decades, applications and systems were locked in by law. They consumed lots of bandwidth while ignoring the emergence of newer technologies like fiber optics (emphasis to underscore that products launched in the 1980s are still cutting-edge challenges for 2021 Spectrum Policy). Spying this mismatch, and seeking gains from trade, creative risk-takers petitioned the FCC.

In a mid-2017 request, computer chipmaker Intel and C-Band satellite carrier Intelsat (no corporate relationship) joined forces to ask for permission to expand the scope of satellite licenses. The proffered plan was for license holders to invest in spectrum economies by upgrading satellites and earth stations—magically creating new, unoccupied channels in prime mid-band frequencies perfect for highly valuable 5G services. All existing video transport services would continue, while society would enjoy way more advanced wireless broadband. All regulators had to do was allow “change of use” in existing licenses. Markets would do the rest: satellite operators would make efficient multi-billion-dollar investments, coordinating with each other and their customers, and then take bids from new users itching to access the prime 4 GHz spectrum. The transition to bold, new, more valuable applications would compensate legacy customers and service providers.

This “spectrum sharing” can spin gold – seizing on capitalist discovery and demand revelation in market bargains. Voila, the 21st century, delivered.

Well, yes and no. At first, the FCC filing was a yawner, the standard bureaucratic response. But this one took off took off when Chairman Pai—alertly, and in the public interest—embraced the proposal, putting it on the July 12, 2018 FCC meeting agenda. Intelsat’s market cap jumped from about $500 million to over $4.5 billion—the value of the spectrum it was using was worth far more than the service it was providing, and the prospect that it might realize some substantial fraction of the resource revaluation was visible evidence.[11] 

While the Pai FCC leaned in the proper policy direction, politics soon blew the process down. Congress denounced the “private auction” as a “windfall,” bellowing against the unfairness of allowing corporations (some foreign-owned!) to cash out. The populist message was upside-down. The social damage created by mismanagement of spectrum—millions of Americans paying more and getting less from wireless than otherwise, robbing ordinary citizens of vast consumer surplus—was being fixed by entrepreneurial initiative. Moreover, the public gains (lower prices plus innovation externalities spun off from liberated bandwidth) was undoubtedly far greater than any rents captured by the incumbent licensees. And a great bonus to spur future progress: rewards for those parties initiating and securing efficiency-enhancing rights will unleash vastly more productive activity.

But the populist winds—gale force and bipartisan—spun the FCC.

It was legally correct that Intelsat and its rival satellite carriers did not own the spectrum allocated to the C-Band. Indeed, that was root of the problem. And here’s a fatal catch: in applying for broader spectrum property rights, they revealed a valuable discovery. The FCC, posing as referee, turned competitor and appropriated the proffered business plan on behalf of its client (the U.S. government), and then auctioned it to bidders. Regulators did tip the incumbents, whose help was still needed in reorganizing the C-Band, setting $3.3 billion as a fair price for “moving costs” (changing out technology to reduce their transmission footprints) and dangled another $9.7 billion in “incentive payments” not to dilly dally. In total, carriers have bid some $93.9 billion, or $1.02 per MHz-Pop.[12] This is 4.7 times the price paid for the Priority Access Licenses (PALs) allocated 70 MHz in Auction 105 earlier in 2020.

The TOTM assignment was not to evaluate Ajit Pai but to evaluate the Pai FCC and its spectrum policies. On that scale, great value was delivered by the Intel-Intelsat proposal, and the FCC’s alert endorsement, offset in some measure by the long-term losses that will likely flow from the dirigiste retreat to fossilized spectrum rights controlled by diktat.

Sharing Nicely

And that takes us to 2020’s Auction 105 (Citizens Broadband Radio Services, CBRS). The U.S. has lagged much of the world in allocating flexible-use spectrum rights in the 3.5 GHz band. Ireland auctioned rights to use 350 MHz in May 2017 and many countries did likewise between then and 2020, distributing far more than the 70 MHz allocated to the Priority Access Licenses (PALs); 150 MHz to 390 MHz is the range. The Pai FCC can plausibly assign the lag to “preexisting conditions.” Here, however, I will stress that the Pai FCC did not substantially further our understanding of the costs of “spectrum sharing” under coordinating devices imposed by the FCC.

All commercially valuable spectrum bands are shared. The most intensely shared, in the relevant economic sense, are those bands curated by mobile carriers. These frequencies are complemented by extensive network capital supplied by investors, and permit millions of users—including international roamers—to gain seamless connectivity. Unlicensed bands, alternatively, tend to separate users spatially, powering down devices to localize footprints. These limits work better in situations where users desire short transmissions, like a Bluetooth link from iPhone to headphone or when bits can be handed off to a wide area network by hopping 60 feet to a local “hot spot.” The application of “spectrum sharing” to imply a non-exclusive (or unlicensed) rights regime is, at best, highly misleading. Whenever conditions of scarcity exist, meaning that not all uses can be accommodated without conflict, some rationing follows. It is commonly done by price, behavioral restriction, or both.

In CBRS, the FCC has imposed three layers of “priority” access across the 3550-3700 MHz band. Certain government radars are assumed to be fixed and must be protected. When in use, these systems demand other wireless services stay silent on particular channels. Next in line are PAL owners, parties which have paid for exclusivity, but which are not guaranteed access to a given channel. These rights, which sold for about $4.5 billion, are allocated dynamically by a controller (a Spectrum Access System, or SAS). The radios and networks used automatically and continuously check in to obtain spectrum space permissions. Seven PALs, allocated 10 MHz each, have been assigned, 70 MHz in total. Finally, General Access Authorizations (GAA) are given without limit or exclusivity to radio devices across the 80 MHz remaining in the band plus any PALs not in use. Some 5G phones are already equipped to use such bands on an unlicensed basis.

We shall see how the U.S. system works in comparison to alternatives. What is important to note is that the particular form of “spectrum sharing” is neither necessary nor free. As is standard outside the U.S., exclusive rights analogous to CMRS licenses could have been auctioned here, with U.S. government radars given vested rights.

One point that is routinely missed is that the decision to have the U.S. government partition the rights in three layers immediately conceded that U.S. government priority applications (for radar) would never shift. That is asserted as though it is a proposition that needs no justification, but it is precisely the sort of impediment to efficiency that has plagued spectrum reallocations for decades. It was, for instance, the 2002 assumption behind TV “white spaces”—that 402 MHz of TV Band frequencies was fixed in place, that the unused channels could never be repackaged and sold as exclusive rights and diverted to higher-valued uses. That unexamined assertion was boldly run then, as seen in the reduction of the band from 402 MHz to 235 MHz following Auctions 73 (2008) and 1001/1002 (2016-17), as well as in the clear possibility that remaining TV broadcasts could today be entirely transferred to cable, satellite, and OTT broadband (as they have already, effectively, been). The problem in CBRS is that the rights now distributed for the 80 MHz of unlicensed, with its protections of certain priority services, does not sprinkle the proper rights into the market such that positive-sum transitions can be negotiated. We’re stuck with whatever inefficiencies this “preexisting condition” of the 3.5 GHz might endow, unless another decadelong FCC spectrum allocation can move things forward.[13]

Already visible is that the rights sold as PALs in CBRS are only about 20% of the value of rights sold in the C-Band. This differential reflects the power restrictions and overhead costs embedded in the FCC’s sharing rules for CBRS (involving dynamic allocation of the exclusive access rights conveyed in PALs) but avoided in C-Band. In the latter, the sharing arrangements are delegated to the licensees. Their owners reveal that they see these rights as more productive, with opportunities to host more services.

There should be greater recognition of the relevant trade-offs in imposing coexistence rules. Yet, the Pai FCC succumbed in 5.9 GHz and in the 6 GHz bands to the tried-and-true options of Regulation Past. This was hugely ironic in the former, where the FCC had in 1999 imposed unlicensed access under rules that favored specific automotive informatics—Dedicated Short-Range Communications (DSRC)—that proved a 20-year bust. In diagnosing this policy blunder, the FCC then repeated it, splitting off a 45 MHz band with Wi-Fi-friendly unlicensed rules, and leaving 30 MHz to continue as the 1999 set-aside for DSRC. A liberalization of rights that would have allowed for a “private auction” to change the use of the band would have been the preferred approach. Instead, we are left with a partition of the band into rival rule regimes again established by administrative fiat.

This approach was then again imposed in the large 1.2 GHz unlicensed allocation surrounding 6 GHz, making a big 2020 splash. The FCC here assumed, categorically, that unlicensed rules are the best way to sponsor spectrum coordination. It ignores the costs of that coordination. And the commission appears to forget the progress it has made with innovative policy solutions, pulling in market forces through “overlay” licenses. These useful devices were used, in one form or another, to reallocate spectrum in for 2G in Auction 4, AWS in Auction 66, millimeter bands in Auctions 102 and 103, the “TV Incentive Auction,” the satellite C-Band in Auction 107, and have recently appeared as star players in the January 2021 FCC plan to rationalize the complex mix of rights scattered around the 2.5 GHz band.[14]  Too complicated for administrators to figure out, it could be transactionally more efficient to let market competitors figure this out.

The Future

The re-allocations in 5.9 GHz and the 6 GHz bands may yet host productive services. One can hope. But how will regulators know that the options allowed, and taken, are superior to what alternatives—suppressed by law for the next five, 10, 20 years—might have emerged had competitors had the right to test business models or technologies disfavored by the regulators best laid plans. That is the thinking that locked in the TV band, the C-Band for Satellites, and the ITS Band. It’s what we learned to be problematic throughout the Political Radio Spectrum. We shall see, as Chairman Pai speculated, what future chapters these decisions leave for future editions.


[1]   https://www.fcc.gov/document/fcc-votes-establish-office-economics-analytics-0

[2]   https://www.fcc.gov/document/fcc-opens-office-economics-and-analytics

[3]   Thomas Hazlett, Economic Analysis at the Federal Communications Commission: A Simple Proposal to Atone for Past Sins, Resources for the Future Discussion Paper 11-23(May 2011);David Honig, FCC Reorganization: How Replacing Silos with Functional Organization Would Advance Civil Rights, 3 University of Pennsylvania Journal of Law and Public Affairs 18 (Aug. 2018). 

[4] It is with great sadness that Jerry Ellig, the 2017-18 FCC Chief Economist who might well offer the most careful analysis of such a structural reform, will not be available for the task – one which he had already begun, writing this recent essay with two other FCC Chief Economists: Babette Boliek, Jerry Ellig and Jeff Prince, Improved economic analysis should be lasting part of Pai’s FCC legacy, The Hill (Dec. 29, 2020).  Jerry’s sudden passing, on January 21, 2021, is a deep tragedy.  Our family weeps for his wonderful wife, Sandy, and his precious daughter, Kat. 

[5]  As argued in: Thomas Hazlett, “The best way for the FCC to enable a 5G future,” Reuters (Jan. 17, 2018).

[6]  In 2018-19, FCC Auctions 101 and 102 offered licenses allocated 1,550 MHz of bandwidth in the 24 GHz and 28 GHz bands, although some of the bandwidth had previously been assigned and post-auction confusion over interference with adjacent frequency uses (in 24 GHz) has impeded some deployments.  In 2020, Auction 103 allowed competitive bidding for licenses to use 37, 39, and 47 GHz frequencies, 3400 MHz in aggregate.  Net proceeds to the FCC in 101, 102 and 103 were:  $700.3 million, $2.02 billion, and $7.56 billion, respectively.

[7]   I estimate that some 70 MHz of unlicensed bandwidth, allocated for television white space devices, was reduced pursuant to the Incentive Auction in 2017.  This, however, was baked into spectrum policy prior to the Pai FCC.

[8]   Notably, 64-71 GHz was allocated for unlicensed radio operations in the Spectrum Frontiers proceeding, adjacent to the 57-64 GHz unlicensed bands.  See Use of Spectrum Bands Above 24 GHz For Mobile Radio Services, et al., Report and Order and Further Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, 31 FCC Rcd 8014 (2016), 8064-65, para. 130.

[9]   The revenues reflect bids made in the Clock phase of Auction 107.  An Assignment Phase has yet to occur as of this writing.

[10]  The 2021 FCC Budget request, p. 34: “As of December 2019, the total amount collected for broader government use and deficit reduction since 1994 exceeds $117 billion.” 

[11]   Kerrisdale Management issued a June 2018 report that tied the proceeding to a dubious source: “to the market-oriented perspective on spectrum regulation – as articulated, for instance, by the recently published book The Political Spectrum by former FCC chief economist Thomas Winslow Hazlett – [that] the original sin of the FCC was attempting to dictate from on high what licensees should or shouldn’t do with their spectrum. By locking certain bands into certain uses, with no simple mechanism for change or renegotiation, the agency guaranteed that, as soon as technological and commercial realities shifted – as they do constantly – spectrum use would become inefficient.” 

[12]   Net proceeds will be reduced to reflect bidding credits extended small businesses, but additional bids will be received in the Assignment Phase of Auction 107, still to be held. Likely totals will remain somewhere around current levels. 

[13]  The CBRS band is composed of frequencies at 3550-3700 MHz.  The top 50 MHz of that band was officially allocated in 2005 in a proceeding that started years earlier.  It was then curious that the adjacent 100 MHz was not included. 

[14] FCC Seeks Comment on Procedures for 2.5 GHz Reallocation (Jan. 13, 2021).

This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is covid-image-1024x683.jpg

[TOTM: The following is part of a blog series by TOTM guests and authors on the law, economics, and policy of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. The entire series of posts is available here.

This post is authored by Thomas W. Hazlett, (Hugh H. Macaulay Endowed Professor of Economics, John E. Walker Department of Economics Clemson University)

(Ed. Note: the following is an excerpt from a piece published by the Chicago Tribune on Oct. 16, 2020. Click here to read the full piece)

No matter your Twitter feed, “vaccines have been one of the greatest public health tools to prevent disease,” as The New York Times explained in January…

Many are terrified that the Food and Drug Administration may hastily authorize injections into hundreds of millions. The FDA and drugmakers are trying to assuage such concerns with enhanced commitments to safety. Nonetheless, fears have been stoked by President Donald Trump’s infomercial-style endorsement of hydroxychloroquine as a COVID-19 remedy, his foolhardy disdain for face masks and campaign rally boasts of a preelection cure.

Yes, politics. But the opposing political push — the demand that new vaccines must be safe at all costs — is itself a dangerous meme, and the strange bedfellow of anti-vaxxer protesters.

Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist Laurie Garrett inadvertently quantifies the problem. In a Sept. 3 article in Foreign Policy, she cited the H1N1 (swine flu) episode in 2009 as “the last mad rush to vaccinate.” Warning that those shots “caused Guillain-Barr (GBS) paralysis in … 6.2 per 10 million patients who received the vaccine,” she argues that phase 3 trials for COVID-19 vaccines, typically involving just 30,000 people, provide little protection. “There’s no way … we can spot a safety hazard that’s in 1 out of a million, much less 1 out of 10 million, vaccine recipients.” The “safety side,” she told a TV interviewer, “looks insane.”

But, in fact, the “insanity” here is not found in the push for speed or in Garrett’s skepticism about Operation Warp Speed. It lies in a lack of balance between the two. An insufficiently vetted vaccine may cost innocent lives, but so will delaying a vaccine that, on net, saves them…

When promising therapies appear, reducing time to market is often worth the risk — as reflected in a raft of pre-COVID-19 policies, including the FDA’s “emergency use authorizations,” “fast track” drug approvals and “compassionate use” permissions for experimental drugs. In phase 3 trials, independent monitors observe results, and trials may be terminated when pre-specified benefits appear. Patients in the control group become eligible for the treatment instead of the placebo. Larger samples would enhance scientific knowledge, but as probabilities shift regulators act on the reality that the ideal can become the enemy of the good.

Read the full piece at the Chicago Tribune.

 

[TOTM: The following is part of a blog series by TOTM guests and authors on the law, economics, and policy of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. The entire series of posts is available here.

This post is authored by Thomas W. Hazlett, (Hugh H. Macaulay Endowed Professor of Economics, John E. Walker Department of Economics Clemson University)

The brutal toll of the coronavirus pandemic has delivered dramatic public policies. The United States has closed institutions, banned crowds, postponed non-emergency medical procedures and instituted social distancing. All to “flatten the curve” of illness. The measures are expensive, but there is no obvious way to better save lives.

There is evidence that, even without the antivirals or vaccines we hope come soon, we are limiting the spread of COVID-19. Daily death totals for the world appear to be leveling; the most severely impacted countries, Italy and Spain, are seeing declines; the top U.S. hotspot, New York, appears to be peaking (and net new coronavirus hospital admissions fell substantially yesterday). I hope that, looking back, these inferences look reasonable.

But of course I do. Is that rational introspection, or confirmation bias? To try to know, we should look about to see how others are addressing this challenge, and how well they are doing. There are experiments being run, in real time on actual economies, and diversity of results is one of the few blessings conveyed by our coronavirus demon.

Differing approaches to mitigating externalities around the world

It strikes many as entirely off-topic to discuss the efficiency of our measures, as though only the most expensive, draconian remedies work. There is a tendency to stress how little room for optionality there exists. Exhortation seems to be the strategy. No doubt, we are confronted by a classic “public good” challenge, where individuals may impose costs on others. Not intentionally, but perhaps through actions that are short-sighted. If a neighbor fails to take “due care” they needlessly endanger others. To overcome such free riding, we “rally ‘round the flag” to condemn anti-social behavior. That is a community survival trait.

And entirely compatible with the pursuit of efficient rules. Shuttering the marketplace and freezing personal mobility imposes harsh hardships; they are, unsurprisingly, resisted. It is stunning how rapidly our Conventional Wisdom has changed, but as recently as January 29 N.Y. Times’ tech columnist Farhad Manjoo warned us to slow down, to “Beware the Pandemic Panic.” He echoed the World Health Organization’s view that the threat was meek and that we ought focus on “not the illness itself but the amped-up, ill-considered way our frightened world might respond to it.” (See Jonathan Tobin’s nice overview of the errors made, left and right, in the run-up to the lock-down. It notes Manjoo’s reversal in the Times, Feb. 26.) 

When the disease seemed less, we were reluctant to impose costs; as the threat loomed larger, we rushed to make up for lost time. We now pay the price for acting late, but without perfect foresight – our perennial state – that insight does not much help us today or prep us for tomorrow. Keen observation of more efficient ways, and robust public discussion, will. 

Sweden has adopted the hygiene and separation practices familiar to Americans. But the government has stopped short of mandates imposed elsewhere. While college courses have rolled over to the Internet, Sweden has not closed schools for students 16 and under. Bars and restaurants remain open, with gatherings up to 50 approved (the US President has asked crowds to be kept to 10 or less). Life seems almost normal to many – Americans might pay a ton for that. Still, substantial macroeconomic costs remain.  One estimate predicts a 4% decline in 2020 GDP, beating expectations for Europe but similar to U.S. forecasts (see Goldman Sachs’ March 26 report with 2020 U.S. GDP growth projection of -3.8% and -9% for European markets.) Alas, the Swedish fatality rate, population adjusted, is higher than its Scandinavian peers and (as of April 7) about one-half higher than the U.S. See Table.

 COVID-19 Fatality Rates per Million Population, Selected Countries (4.7.20)

CountryDeaths/mil.Days since 1/mil.Daily GrowthGeo. Avg. Weekly Growth/day 
USA38.6161.181.19
Italy284.3351.041.05
Spain298.2271.051.08
Czech Rep.8.2101.131.16
Sweden57.2191.241.19
Switzerland95.6251.071.10
U.K.92.9201.151.19
France154.2251.161.17
Germany24.2171.111.15
Singapore1.131.01.0
S. Korea3.7291.031.02
Japan<1n/an/an/a

Source: https://91-divoc.com/pages/covid-visualization/

The Czech Republic – with a much lower COVID-19 mortality rate – innovated. The Czechs imposed the standard hygiene and social distancing practices, but added a twist: every person, when in public, is obligated to wear a face mask. It need not be medical grade. This sidestep not only spares supplies for crucial medical professionals, who work in close proximity to patients infected with coronavirus, it has unleashed a popular movement to sew home-made masks. That has jump-started social norms to reduce infections by wearing protective gear. And its simple logic is compelling: you protect me, I protect you.

Of course, the masks do not block one hundred percent of potential transmissions – perhaps no more than two-thirds, under favorable conditions, according to a 2013 study in the journal Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness, Testing Homemade Masks for Efficacy: Would they Protect in an Influenza Pandemic?. The findings, showing results for filtering effectiveness using different materials masks, are given in the Table below. They suggest that (a) no masks are perfectly effective in blocking all tiny particles, including infectious biological matter; (b) surgical masks are relatively effective; (c) homemade masks are less effective, but much better than nothing – and should be used in conjunction with other (distancing, hygiene, etc.) practices. Where surgical masks are too expensive or unavailable, cotton face masks (sewn with multiple layers) or vacuum bags (if you can snag them) are useful substitutes. Their role is to suppress rates of disease progression, bending the curve and managing the pandemic.

The decision to encourage and then require masks (with an order effective midnight March 18) led to an enthusiastic campaign to make stylish, personalized gear – soon posted on Insta. It channeled the desire of citizens to both battle coronavirus and yet to continue living their lives. Mask wearing then further served as a reminder to observe additional rules of separation, while discouraging people from touching their face. A video on the virus went viral. It’s beautifully logical and upbeat, as global emergency crisis responses go. Judge for yourself

No doubt more research should be performed; an entire industry of PhD theses from epidemiology to sociology to public health may homestead this topic in the post-Coronavirus world. But we also must pay attention to our experimental results in real time. The Demonstration Effect is, and should be, powerful. Countries such as Slovakia and Belgium saw the Czech Republic’s approach, relative openness (low-cost mitigation), and superior survival rates, and quickly adopted similar policies. 

The U.S. rationale for discouraging mask use

U.S. policy makers initially shielded themselves from the face mask question by issuing the “institutional no.”[1] The American public was instructed by the Center for Disease Control (CDC) to refrain from wearing masks save in the instance where they were infected. There were three reasons. First, that wearing masks would actually harm healthy people not impacted with COVID-19. Second, the masks were ineffective in shielding small aerosol particles, particularly since non-professionals would not wear them properly. Third, the limited supply of high-quality, medical grade face masks should be reserved for doctors, nurses, and other health care workers who, by the nature of their tasks, could not observe “social distancing” or otherwise avoid infected COVID-19 patients. 

The third rationale had an advantage over the first two as not being false. But by the logic used to prioritize medical professional mask protections, buttressed by a modicum of public education, the rest of us would be likely to benefit, as well. The CDC was arguing magnitude and rankings (OK), and then configuring the effectiveness arguments to justify the rankings (not OK). It was a blunder, squandering precious time and undercutting agency credibility.  Moreover, the administrative edict pretended to be scientific when it was crafting (bad) economics. The Czechs and many Asian countries discovered (as disaster preparedness research had already found) that ad hoc masks work reasonably cheaply, quickly and well, and that the population can be protected to a non-trivial degree by producing their own. No need to steal N-95 respirators from frontline warriors; we’ll just make more (lower quality) protection devices.

Tip your cap to the Czech Republic. The story busted out. On March 30, The Guardian wrote: “Czechs get to work making masks after government decree: Czech Republic and Slovakia are only countries in Europe to make coronavirus mask-wearing mandatory.” By April 2, Dr. Ronald Depinho, a former president of M.D. Anderson, was editorializing: “Every American should wear a face mask to defeat Covid-19.” His empirical take was informed by a graphic (popularly Tweeted) showing fatality rates across countries – in general, the mask wearing societies of Asia (Japan, South Korean, Singapore, Taiwan) were seen to be doing relatively well in limiting the COVID-19 carnage. 

Face Masks As Pandemic Defense (4.2.20) Source: STAT

Human experiments are often considered cruel. But when they are run, let us learn from them.  

 U.S. about-face on mask use

And so the U.S. policy flipped. As per TIME:

On April 3, President Trump announced that the CDC now recommends that the general population wear non-medical masks—meaning fabric that covers one’s nose and mouth, like bandanas or cut T-shirts—when they must leave their homes to go to places like the grocery store. The measure is voluntary. The mayors of Los Angeles and New York City have already made similar recommendations. In other parts of the country, it’s not voluntary: for example, officials in Laredo, Texas have said they can fine people up to $1,000 when residents do not wear a face covering in public.

Kudos to the agency. Mistakes will be made, and it’s a great idea to fix them. But it is also instructive to see where the policy was on March 4, when TIME ran a story on how the CDC was having to combat widespread public demand for masks. There had been a retail run on masks, wiping out inventories at stores, Amazon and everywhere else; many healthy people were ignoring the request not to mask up in public; celebrities like Gwyneth Paltrow and Bella Hadid were posting their pix online. And here’s the chilling part, and it’s sadly symptomatic: the magazine fully took the agency’s side on the science and had no trouble finding additional expert authority to suppress the urge to investigate. Instead, the issue was settled by decree and then embellished as factual necessity:

“It seems kind of intuitively obvious that if you put something—whether it’s a scarf or a mask—in front of your nose and mouth, that will filter out some of these viruses that are floating around out there,” says Dr. William Schaffner, professor of medicine in the division of infectious diseases at Vanderbilt University. The only problem: that’s not likely to be effective against respiratory illnesses like the flu and COVID-19. If it were, “the CDC would have recommended it years ago,” he says. “It doesn’t, because it makes science-based recommendations.”

About that, TIME wrote: “The science, according to the CDC, says that surgical masks won’t stop the wearer from inhaling small airborne particles, which can cause infection. Nor do these masks form a snug seal around the face.” The harm was not simply a run on supplies that would deprive health workers of necessary protective gear.

“Seriously people- STOP BUYING MASKS!” tweeted Dr. Jerome Adams, the U.S. Surgeon General, on Feb. 29. “They are NOT effective in preventing general public… Adams said that wearing a mask can even increase your risk of getting the virus.

This extended into the psychological realm:

Lynn Bufka, a clinical psychologist and senior director for practice, research and policy at the American Psychological Association, suspects that people are clinging to masks for the same reason they knock on wood or avoid walking under ladders. “Even if experts are saying it’s really not going to make a difference, a little [part of] people’s brains is thinking, well, it’s not going to hurt. Maybe it’ll cut my risk just a little bit, so it’s worth it to wear a mask,” she says. In that sense, wearing a mask is a “superstitious behavior”…

Earth to Experts: superstitions run in multiple directions. See: the current view of the CDC as a correction of their previous one. And note the new TIME, quoting quite a different expert view on April 6.

“Now with the realization that there are individuals who are asymptomatic, and those asymptomatic individuals can spread infection, it’s hard to make the recommendation that only ill individuals wear masks in the community setting for protection, because it’s not clear who is ill and who is not,” says Allison Aiello, a professor of epidemiology at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill’s Gillings School of Global Public Health, who has researched the efficacy of masks.

Another conventional view that COVID-19 spread needed person-to-person contact, touching or close-in exchange (via coughing, breathing). But now it appears to be the case that the virus hangs around in the air, and that dosing (how much you inhale) matters greatly. A well person who encounters a passing microbe might catch a mild case of COVID-19, whereas sitting next to an infected person for five hours on a bus or airplane will trigger severe infection. In this environment, the logic for masks swells.

Scientific inquiry continues. The World Health Organization posted (March 27) that there was insufficient evidence to say whether COVID-19 travels airborne for any distance. What is the action take-away? Nature (April 2) puts the state of debate like this:

[E]xperts that work on airborne respiratory illnesses and aerosols say that gathering unequivocal evidence for airborne transmission could take years and cost lives. We shouldn’t “let perfect be the enemy of convincing”, says Michael Osterholm, an infectious-disease epidemiologist at the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis. “In the mind of scientists working on this, there’s absolutely no doubt that the virus spreads in the air,” says aerosol scientist Lidia Morawska at the Queensland University of Technology in Brisbane, Australia. “This is a no-brainer.”

Nature notes that those working in the area recommended masks as a policy response. 

Challenge the orthodoxy of the expert class, encourage intellectual diversity

Challenging orthodoxy is key to science; how else are errors uncovered or innovations discovered? On the frontiers there cannot be utter consensus. If there is, the thinkers have yet to probe nearly far enough. Safi Bakhall, in his remarkable Loonshots: Nurturing the Crazy Ideas that Win Wars, Cure Diseases and Transform Industries (2019), quotes Nobel Laureate in Medicine, Sir James Black: “it’s not a good drug unless it’s been killed at least three times” (45).  The history of progress is pocked with failure, dispute, and persistence. Only then does a great breakthrough survive the Three Deaths.

Professor Zeynep Tufekci, of Information Sciences at the University of North Carolina, came to see her research to suggest that lives could be saved by the mass market adoption of simple, non-medical masks in the United States. She broke the ice on the N.Y. Times op-ed page with her March 17 gem: “Why Telling People They Don’t Need Masks Backfired: To help manage the shortage, the authorities sent a message that made them untrustworthy.” 

Dr. Zeynep Tufekci, a professor of information science who specializes in the social effects of technology.

She put pieces of the puzzle together and made rational comparisons:

[P]laces like Hong Kong and Taiwan that jumped to action early with social distancing and universal mask wearing have the pandemic under much greater control, despite having significant travel from mainland China. Hong Kong health officials credit universal mask wearing as part of the solution and recommend universal mask wearing. In fact, Taiwan responded to the coronavirus by immediately ramping up mask production.

I’d wager Zeynep deserves a promotion, if not a Medal of Freedom. Because the fear is that this sort of commentary in the public forum will spark the opposite reaction. She believed, based on her scholarly study, that mass mask adoption might save lives, but cost her own, academically speaking. In a nifty interview with tech explainer Ben Thompson published April 2 on Stratechery,[2] Zeynep confides in how her thinking progressed. 

I watched somewhat flabbergasted over the next few months as the recommendation not to wear masks got harder and harder. Instead of getting softer as the epidemic became a pandemic and saying, well, we should see, we should reevaluate, I started seeing all these messages, like people wouldn’t know how to wear masks and they would infect themselves more and also there is a big shortage of masks, and that all came together in a very frustrating moment for me. The idea that people wouldn’t figure out how to wear a surgical mask or N95s, which are those medical grade masks that we’re now reserving only for hospitals and medical workers, is kind of ridiculous. People don’t wash their hands correctly either, right? So when the pandemic hit, we have songs to get people to wash them for the right amount and we teach them how, people can obviously learn how to wear masks correctly. And as you know, people in Hong Kong can do it, in Taiwan can do it.

But I wanted somebody else from the medical fields to write this. I wanted an epidemiologist, I wanted a virologist to come out and say, look, all these health authorities in Hong Kong and Taiwan, in South Korea, in Japan where it’s kind of customary, there are all these places with lower spread… You don’t even know if you’re sick, so the recommendation of wear this if you’re sick made no sense.

So here’s how I came to write it, even though it wasn’t my place to write this, and I really kind of dragged my foot a little bit, because… I’m not an epidemiologist. I don’t have a degree in virology, I’m not the person: I wrote it because none of the doctors could write it…. I said we have to talk about this, we have to change this conversation… So I wrote the piece pretty much making the case against what was then the CDC and the World Health Organization guidelines, and I braced for the biggest backlash of my life… and I thought, I’m going to get in so much trouble over this, I’m going to be canceled, I’m going to have the huge backlash… I thought this might be the end of my writing career as I knew it… but I just have to say this, I have to say my truth.

I hope Zeynep remains asymptomatic. No – actually, I hope she is a star. If she survives and flourishes, maybe diversity of thought, and alert empirical analysis, comparing realistic options during real-time social stress, can make a splash. If so, I hope it becomes airborne.


[1] The term is attributed to Amazon CEO Jeff Bezos in Brad Stone, “The Everything Store: Jeff Bezos in the Age of Amazon” (2013). It refers to the tendency of any organization, particularly large and complicated ones, to reflexively dismiss new ideas and their sources. It is a twist on the classic NIH (Not Invented Here) problem.

[2] Subscription-required – I recommend it.

by Thomas W. Hazlett, H.H. Macaulay Endowed Chair in Economics at Clemson University

Josh Wright is a tour de force. He has broken the mold for a Washington regulator — and created a new one. As a scholar, he carefully crafts his analyses of public policy. As a strategic thinker, he tackles the issues that redound to the greatest social benefit. And as a champion of competitive markets, he forcefully advances rules to encourage innovation and consumer welfare. Nearly as important as his diligence within the regulatory process, he is transparent in his objectives and takes every opportunity to enunciate his principles for action. The public knows what he is doing and why it is important. 

As a sample of Commissioner Wright’s dedication to improving regulatory law, I am delighted to suggest the talk he gave April 2, 2015 at Clemson University, hosted by the Information Economy Project. His title: Regulation in High-Tech Markets: Public Choice, Regulatory Capture, and the FTC. He was particularly concerned in describing the harm produced by state and local barriers blocking competitive forces with respect to emerging, disruptive innovations such as Uber and AirBnB, offering remedies available via competition policy. The talk is posted here.

I am very pleased to pass along this information about the 15th Annual Symposium on Antitrust Law on January 26th, 2012 sponsored by the George Mason Law Review, GMU Law & Economics Center, and Kelley Drye & Warren LLP.

 

The George Mason Law Review, in partnership with the George Mason University Law & Economics Center and sponsor Kelley Drye & Warren LLP, is pleased to present its 15th Annual Symposium on Antitrust Law on January 26, 2012. The symposium, entitled “Antitrust in High-Tech Industries,” will be held in the Founders Hall Auditorium at George Mason University School of Law, located at 3301 Fairfax Drive, Arlington, Virginia.

The program will focus on the proper role of antitrust in high technology industries, including the extent to which current competition policy is adequate to address dynamic competition concerns that are prevalent in rapidly evolving sectors.  Specifically, panels will explore the application of antitrust laws to social media, mergers, online search, and online advertising.

The Keynote Address will be delivered by William Kovacic, former Chairman of the US Federal Trade Commission.

Please join us on January 26, 2012! To register, click here.

For a detailed description of the Symposium Panels, click here.

Fees:
General Admission: $150.00
Government/Academic: $50.00
Student: $50.00

Note: 5.5 CLE credit hours from the Virginia Bar Association are available for program attendees.

For more information, contact Katie Brown at gmusymposium@gmail.com or call (703) 375-9529.

15th Annual Symposium Brochure

Speakers and Agenda:

8:00 – 8:30am            Registration and Continental Breakfast

8:30 – 8:35am             Welcome and Introduction

8:35 – 10:00am          Panel 1: Perspectives on High-Tech Antitrust

Howard Shelanski, Georgetown University Law Center

Herbert Hovenkamp, University of Iowa College of Law

George L. Priest, Yale Law School

Keith Hylton, Boston University School of Law

10:15 – 11:45pm        Panel 2: Social Media

Catherine E. Tucker, MIT Sloan School of Management

Spencer W. Waller, Loyola University, Chicago School of Law

Frank Pasquale, Seton Hall Law School

11:45 – 1:45pm          Luncheon and Keynote Address

William E. Kovacic, The George Washington University Law School

1:45 – 3:15pm             Panel 3: Mergers

Luke M. Froeb, Vanderbilt University

Thomas W. Hazlett, George Mason University School of Law

Jonathan B. Baker, American University Washington College of Law

3:30 – 4:45pm           Panel 4: Search and Online Advertising

William C. MacLeod, Kelly Drye & Warren LLP

Joshua D. Wright, George Mason University School of Law

Daniel Crane, University of Michigan Law School

Scott A. Sher, Wilson Sonsini Goodrich & Rosati

4:45 – 5:00pm           Closing Remarks

5:00 – 6:00pm           Refreshments/ Reception

Location:
George Mason University School of Law
Founders Hall Auditorium
3301 Fairfax Drive
Arlington, VA 22201

For directions, click here.

Wednesday, May 18th, I participated in a Mercatus event at George Mason focusing upon wireless competition, the forthcoming wireless competition report, FCC wireless policy, competition policy more generally.

The panel included:

Thomas W. Hazlett, Professor of Law & Economics, George Mason University School of Law

Joshua D. Wright, Associate Professor of Law, George Mason University School of Law

Robert M. Frieden, Professor of Telecommunications & Law, Penn State University

Harold Feld, Legal Director, Public Knowledge

Video of the event is available at the link above.

Tyler Cowen has posted the reading list for his 2010 Industrial Organization class in the George Mason economics department.  He asks for recommendations.  Below the fold are my suggestions to supplement Section I or II of Cowen’s reading list. The first order of business is getting Coase, Klein, Crawford Alchian (1978), Alchian and Demsetz (1972) and Williamson (1971, 1975) added to the theory of the firm reading.

Continue Reading…

Richard Thaler’s NYT Economic View column features Tom Hazlett (my colleague, and former chief economist as the FCC) proposal for auctioning off TV spectrum.   Thaler points out:

These frequencies are very attractive on technological grounds. People in the industry refer to them as “beachfront property” because these low-frequency radio waves have desirable properties: they travel long distances and permeate walls. We have already allocated parts of this spectrum for mobile wireless, and the F.C.C. recently auctioned other parts for $19 billion. That has left 49 channels for over-the-air television.

Why is the current use of this spectrum so inefficient? First, because of the need to prevent interference among stations, only 17 percent of it is actually allocated by the F.C.C. for full-power television stations. (The so-called white space among stations is used for some limited short-range applications like wireless microphones.)

Second, over-the-air broadcasts are becoming a nearly obsolete technology. Already, 91 percent of American households get their television via cable or satellite. So we are using all of this beachfront property to serve a small and shrinking segment of the population.

Here’s how Professor Hazlett describes the problem in the introduction to his proposal:

The Federal Communications Commission’s digital television (DTV) transition is not nearly complete. The total bandwidth set aside for terrestrial digital video broadcasting — 49 channels allotted some 294 MHz — is worth over $100 billion in license value and at least ten times that amount in Consumer Surplus.2 But it contributes virtually nothing to society in its current configuration, a verdict that will not change if the FCC continues on its present path. The existing policy, which freezes TV stations in their current positions and then attempts to sprinkle in unlicensed devices in the “white spaces” surrounding them, blocks the flow of spectrum inputs to the wireless services consumers most desire to use.

The opportunities squandered are highly valued by consumers: more competition
among mobile voice and data carriers; innovative, spectrum-intensive applications for emerging platforms such as those supporting Blackberries, iPhones, and gPhones; broad expansion of machine-to-machine services as launched by OnStar, Kindle, health telemetrics vendors, and product monitoring devices. While the under-allocation of radio spectrum to mobile networks has been visible for some years,3 the crisis now looming is widely seen. The explosion in bandwidth usage by smart phone subscribers, a salubrious product of competitive rivalry between mobile carriers, is challenging network capacities even now – when high-bandwidth applications, such as audio and video streaming, are just beginning to take-off.

The solution? Thaler discusses Hazlett’s auction proposal:

Suppose we put this spectrum up for sale. (The local stations do not “own” this spectrum. They have licenses granted by the Federal Communications Commission.) Although the details of how to conduct this auction are important, they don’t make compelling reading on a Sunday morning. Interested readers should examine a detailed proposal made to the F.C.C. by Thomas W. Hazlett, a professor at the George Mason University School of Law who was formerly the F.C.C.’s chief economist.

Professor Hazlett estimates that selling off this spectrum could raise at least $100 billion for the government and, more important, create roughly $1 trillion worth of value to users of the resulting services. Those services would include ultrahigh-speed wireless Internet access (including access for schools, of course) much improved cellphone coverage and fewer ugly cell towers. And they would include other new things we can’t imagine any more than we could have imagined an iPhone just 10 years ago.  But some compelling technology that could use these frequencies already exists, like wireless health monitoring — to check diabetics’ blood sugar regularly, for example — and remote robotic surgery that can give a patient in Idaho a treatment like that available in New York or Chicago….

Professor Hazlett estimates that $300 per household should do it: that amounts to $3 billion at most. Compared with the gains from selling off the spectrum, it’s a drop in the bucket. Or, as an interim step, we could reduce the number of channels available in a community from 49 to, say, 5.

Who would oppose this plan? Local broadcasters are likely to contend that they are providing a vital community service in return for free use of the spectrum that was put in their hands decades ago. Whether the local news or other programs are vital services is up for debate, but their value isn’t the issue, because they can be made available via cable, satellite and other technologies, including improved broadband. …

I KNOW that this proposal sounds too good to be true, but I think the opportunity is real. And unlike some gimmicks from state and local governments, like selling off proceeds from the state lottery to a private company, this doesn’t solve current problems simply by borrowing from future generations. Instead, by allowing scarce resources to be devoted to more productive uses, we can create real value for the economy.

Economists are fond of saying that there is no such thing as a free lunch. Here we have an idea that is even better than a free lunch: being paid to eat lunch. More paid-lunch ideas will be coming in future columns.

Check out Thaler’s column, and Hazlett’s proposal.

I’m very pleased to announce that my first book editing project (along with my colleague Lloyd Cohen), Pioneers of Law and Economics, is available on-line from Edward Elgar Publishing.  The book includes a series of specially commissioned essays designed to honor the founders of the law and economics enterprise.  From the book:

The editors of the volume embrace a view of the field that is inclusive not only of a broad range of issues, but also of economic methods. Celebrated here are the founders of law and economics as well as economic theorists, public choice scholars, lawyers and judges who applied economic insights to the law and legal institutions. They include: Ronald Coase, Aaron Director, George Stigler, Armen Alchian, Harold Demsetz, Benjamin Klein, James Buchanan, Gordon Tullock, Henry Manne, Richard Posner, Gary Becker, William Landes, Richard Epstein, Guido Calabresi, Frank Easterbrook, Daniel Fischel, Steven Shavell and A. Mitchell Polinsky. Contributors to the volume include other pioneers, former students and clerks, colleagues, and influential scholars in the field.

Scholars and students working in the tradition of law and economics, as well as those in the fields of economics, law and public policy will find the book an essential reference for this important area of scholarship.

Many thanks to the excellent list of contributors who devoted their time and energy into this project!

1. Ronald H. Coase
Thomas W. Hazlett

2. Aaron Director Remembered
Stephen M. Stigler

3. Aaron Director’s Influence on Antitrust Policy
Sam Peltzman

4. George J. Stigler and his Contributions to Law and Economics
Harold Demsetz

5. The Enduring Contributions of Armen Alchian
Susan Woodward

6. Harold Demsetz
Mark F. Grady

7. Benjamin Klein’s Contributions to Law and Economics
Joshua D. Wright

8. Buchanan and Tullock on Law and Economics
Robert D. Tollison

9. Henry Manne
Larry E. Ribstein

10. Gary Becker’s Contributions to Law and Economics
John F. Pfaff

11. Pioneers of Law and Economics: William M. Landes and Richard A. Posner
Thomas S. Ulen

12. Putting Law First: Richard Epstein’s Contribution to Law and Economics
Andrew P. Morriss

13. Calabresi’s Influence of Law and Economics
Keith N. Hylton

14. Easterbrook and Fischel
Katherine V. Litvak

15. The Path Breaking Contributions of A. Mitchell Polinsky and Steven Shavell to Law and Economics
Nuno Garoupa and Fernando Gomez-Pomar

If you are a student, teacher, producer or consumer of law and economics scholarship this is a great volume for you.  With the exceptions of the Peltzman and Stigler essays on Aaron Director from the recent Journal of Law and Economics tribute Buy the book, these are all original essays written for the purposes of this collection.  You can buy the book here.

UPDATE 3:  It just keeps getting better.  Now we’ve added Mike Baye, formerly Director of the Bureau of Economics at the FTC, now returned to his post at Indiana.  He’ll be moderating and I’m sure commenting on many of the papers. 

UPDATE 2: And now Susan DeSanti, newly-appointed Director of the Office of Policy and Planning at the FTC has signed on for our industry/regulator roundtable.  A not-to-be-missed event! 

UPDATE:  We’re delighted to announce that Bill Kovacic will be joining us to deliver the conference’s morning keynote, as well.  A great conference just got even better!

 For the third year, Josh and I have organized the annual George Mason Law School/Microsoft Conference on the Law and Economics of Innovation.  The conference is at the Arlington Hilton on May 7; registration is free. 

This year’s conference is on “Online Markets vs. Traditional Markets,” and once again we have a stellar line-up.  The (beautifully re-designed) conference website is here.  You can register for the conference here

This year features a keynote address from Susan Athey (Harvard Economics; Clark Medal winner), as well as the following presentations:

Peter Klein (Missouri Economics)– Does the New Economy Need a New Economics?
Thomas W. Hazlett (George Mason Law) – The Role of Exclusive Spectrum Rights in Wireless Network Innovations: Of Newtons, Blackberries, iPhones & G-Phones
Eric Goldman (Santa Clara Law) – The Economics of Reputational Information

Florencia Marotta-Wurgler (NYU Law) – Does Anyone Read Fine Print? A Test of the Informed Minority Hypothesis
Howard Beales (George Washington Business) – Public Goods, Private Information, and Anonymous Transactions: Providing a Safe and Interesting Internet
Peter Swire (Ohio State Law) – Privacy and Antitrust

Philip J. Weiser (Colorado Law; DOJ)— Re-evaluating the Theory and Realities of Online Contracts
Randal C. Picker (Chicago Law) — The Mediated Book
F. Scott Kieff (Wash U. Law (moving to George Washington Law)) — Commerce in the Shadow of the Commons: Business Models in Cyberspace

We’ll also have an industry roundtable to reflect on the day with representatives from Microsoft, Amazon and Facebook.

Should be a great conference–Please join us!

Its the time for end of the year lists. In conjunction with Danny Sokol’s survey of nominations for article of the year in 2008 (here are last year’s entries and here’s my list of the top 10 from last year), and without further ado, here are my personal, idiosyncratic, completely non-scientifically derived top 10 antitrust articles for 2008 (in alphabetical order):

  1. Michael R. Baye, Market Definition and Unilateral Competitive Effects in Online Retail Markets, 4 Journal of Competition Law and Economics 639 (2008).
  2. Dennis W. Carlton & Ken Heyer, Extraction vs. Extension: The Basis for Formulating Antitrust Policy Toward Single Firm Conduct, 4(2) Competition Policy International 285 (2008).
  3. Department of Justice, Competition and Monopoly: Single Firm Conduct Under Section 2 of the Sherman Act
  4. Joseph Farrell & Carl Shapiro, Antitrust Evaluation of Horizontal Mergers: An Economic Alternative to Market Definition (working paper, 2008)
  5. Thomas W. Hazlett & Anil Caliskan, Natural Experiments in Broadband Regulation, 7 (4) Review of Network Economics (2008).
  6. Keith N. Hylton & David S. Evans, The Lawful Acquisition and Exercise of Monopoly Power and Its Implications for the Objectives of Antitrust, 4 (2) Competition Policy International 203 (2008)
  7. Benjamin Klein and Kevin M. Murphy, Exclusive Dealing Intensifies Competition for Distribution, 75 (2) Antitrust Law Journal 433 (2008).
  8. William E. Kovacic, Competition Policy in the European Union and the United States: Convergence or Divergence?
  9. Thomas A. Lambert, Dr. Miles is Dead, Now What? Structuring a Rule of Reason for Evaluating Minimum Resale Price Maintenance (William and Mary Law Rev., forthcoming)
  10. Timothy J. Muris & Vernon Smith, Antitrust and Bundled Discounts: An Experimental Analysis, 75 (2) Antitrust Law Journal 399 (2008)

So, which is the article of the year? And the winner is …. (my lame attempt at drama means you must hit beneath the fold to find out)

UPDATE: Danny Sokol has got the whole set of nominations posted at ACP Blog.  There is some overlap with my list, and a few articles I was unaware of but am now looking forward to reading.  Lots of variance in the list.  No article is listed twice.  Head over there to see the full list.

Continue Reading…

I am very pleased to announce the “Merger Analysis in High Technology Markets” on behalf of my colleague Tom Hazlett, myself, and the Information Economy Project of the National Center for Technology and Law. The conference will be held at George Mason University School of Law on February 1, 2008 from 8:15 am-2:30 pm. Below is the conference agenda and information about attending. We hope to see you there!

INFORMATION ECONOMY PROJECT
THOMAS W. HAZLETT, DIRECTOR
DREW CLARK, ASSOCIATE DIRECTOR
JOSHUA D. WRIGHT, CONFERENCE ORGANIZER

 

MERGER ANALYSIS IN HIGH TECHNOLOGY MARKETS

HAZEL HALL * GMU SCHOOL OF LAW * ROOM 121

8:15 WELCOME * THOMAS HAZLETT (GMU)

8:20 MORNING KEYNOTE

8:45 PANEL 1 * MODERATOR: KEN HEYER (DOJ)

HOWARD SHELANSKI (UC BERKELEY)
TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION AND MERGER POLICY’S THIRD ERA

MICHAEL BAYE (FTC)
MARKET DEFINITION IN ONLINE MARKETS

RICHARD GILBERT (UC BERKELEY)
SKY WARS: THE ATTEMPTED MERGER OF DISH/ DIRECTV

10:00 BREAK

10:15 PANEL 2 * MODERATOR: MICHAEL VITA (FTC)

HAL SINGER (CRITERION) & ROBERT HAHN (AEI)
AN ANTITRUST ANALYSIS OF GOOGLE’S PROPOSED ACQUISITION OF DOUBLECLICK

MARY COLEMAN (LECG)

NICE THEORY BUT WHERE’S THE EVIDENCE?:
THE
USE OF ECONOMIC EVIDENCE TO EVALUATE VERTICAL AND CONGLOMERATE MERGERS IN THE US AND EU

LUKE FROEB (VANDERBILT)

MERGERS AMONG FIRMS THAT LICENSE COMMON INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY

11:30 BREAK

11:45 PANEL 3*MODERATOR: JONATHAN BAKER (AMERICAN)

BRUCE ABRAMSON (CRAI)

ARE “ONLINE MARKETS” REAL AND RELEVANT?

THOMAS HAZLETT (GMU)

ANTITRUST IN ORBIT: SOME DYNAMICS OF HORIZONTAL MERGER ANALYSIS IN THE CASE OF XM-SIRIUS

J. GREG SIDAK (GEORGETOWN)

EVALUATING MARKET POWER WITH TWO-SIDED DEMAND AND PREEMPTIVE OFFERS TO DISSIPATE MONOPOLY RENT: LESSONS FOR HIGH-TECHNOLOGY INDUSTRIES FROM THE PROPOSED MERGER OF XM AND SIRIUS SATELLITE RADIO MERGER

1:00 LUNCH

LUNCH KEYNOTE

2:30 ADJOURN

VENUE: The George Mason University School of Law, Hazel Hall, 3301 Fairfax Drive, Arlington, VA 22201 (near the Virginia Square-GMU Metro — Orange Line). Admission is free, but seating is limited. To reserve your spot, please email Drew Clark: iep.gmu@gmail.com. Parking (at market rates) is available in the GMU Foundation Bldg., 3434 Washington Boulevard. An Arlington campus map is found here: http://www.gmu.edu/departments/infoservices/ArlingtonMap07.pdf.